E S L Sample Lesson Plan

 
     Where did you go on the weekend?


 

 

TEACHING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN OR ADDITIONAL LANGUAGE

Grammar Lesson Plan

 

The Simple Past with WH-Questions

 

By Michelle V. Bain

April 24, 2013

 

 

 


 

Rationale: 

A routine daily travel/transportation theme is universal. People travel constantly in their local communities. They can get lost or disoriented on a trip and make simple mistakes. They need to ask information questions to get answers. In ordinary conversations and social interaction involving past events adult learners need to know which kinds of WH-questions to ask in an English-speaking context in order to obtain specific details. The answers to these questions would assist them in making appropriate decisions and choices in the face of many options. Moreover, the basic everyday vocabulary of the group of upper beginners contains many words relating to travel/transportation and getting around their local communities. Therefore, though these adult beginners have varied interests and different cultural backgrounds, they are members of distinct communities and would generally have few problems relating to the theme of transportation/travel and its issues. They also need this kind of instruction. I chose to use a deductive and guided discovery approach incorporating techniques which are explicit, for the most part, in order to guide the learners. The formation, function and meaning of the simple past with WH-questions need to be made clear. Also, the examples and activities are deliberately simple, methodical, and at times, repetitive because of the extensive need for reinforcement and practice in various ways. The learners are encouraged to practise as individuals, in pairs and as a whole class, etc. Exposure to and practice with these forms would enable the students to obtain specific information and details they need to function in social and routine activities.

Prior Learning:  

Upper beginners generally should know how to form and respond to simple Yes/No questions about everyday routines using the present simple and regular past tenses in their affirmative, negative and interrogative forms. They should be able to produce well-formed, simple declarative sentences in the past and present. They should have begun learning past and past participle forms of irregular verbs and they should know several auxiliaries already. These beginners should also know the present tense forms of the verb “to be” but require extensive reinforcement of the interrogative, past and negative forms.

It is expected that they possess a vocabulary of basic descriptive adjectives and a list of everyday objects. They know the basic transportation/travel words  as well (e.g. bus, train, airplane, highway, car, vehicle, fare, ticket, accident, driver, passenger, schedule, route, station, terminal, time, stop, downtown, connection, drive, buy, pay, etc.). Further, they should know the names of the most common jobs and they can tell basic time and use time expressions (in the morning… in the afternoon….. in the evening…. at night...etc.). Their vocabulary skills enable them to share their experiences and participate in basic reading, listening and speaking activities; they can also describe objects, experiences and everyday routines simply—primarily in focused and concrete contexts.

 

 

 

Grammar Lesson Plan: Simple Past with WH-Questions

 

 

Level: Upper Beginners – 3/4 on a scale of 12 proficiency levels

Class Length: 95 minutes

Theme/Context: Daily Travel/Transportation

Skills: Listening & Speaking (with Reading & Writing integrated)

Focus: Grammar

 

Learning Outcomes: Ss will be able to

·         accurately construct basic WH-questions in the simple past within the context of a focused practice exercise pertaining to daily travel/transportation (form, meaning and use)

·         respond to basic information questions using the simple past in short answers

·         use vocabulary related to basic local travel/transportation

 

 

Enabling Objectives: Ss will

·         demonstrate an understanding of simple vocabulary related to travel/transportation activities

·         demonstrate correct responses (orally) to basic WH-questions using the simple past construction

·         copy simple WH-questions in the simple past

·         answer focused WH-questions about a story they have heard and read

·         respond in writing to one WH-question

 

Materials/Equipment: Dry-erase markers, class worksheets with practice exercises, Data Video Projector (DVP) or Overhead (OHP), copies of story texts about a road trip, chart paper, picture cut-outs with people doing things, going places, etc.

 

Stage:

Warm Up

Focus/Skill(s):

Speaking, Listening

T Role:

Director and Controller

Learning Styles:

Verbal/Linguistic, Visual/Spatial

Timing:

5 minutes

 

Pre-Activity:

T talk: “It’s great to see everyone. How are you doing? I hope you are fine. So today, we’ll be talking a bit about what you have all done last weekend, okay. But FIRST, let’s take another look at some of the vocabulary you’ve learned in the last two weeks.” T shows PowerPoint pictures of various vehicles, modes of transportation/travel and action verbs like visit, go, travel, ride, drive, etc., and she asks Ss to identify the activity in the pictures as best as they can. Ss identify the various activities/actions/modes of travel, etc. Then teacher proceeds in facilitating a short discussion about last weekend’s activities. T talk: “That was very good. I am glad to see that you remember all those verbs and vocabulary. Now, I want you to share a bit about what you did last weekend or where you went. Okay? Do you remember what you did? Yes? What did you do last weekend? OR Where did you go last weekend? Who wants to share first? What did you do last weekend?   OR   Where did you go last weekend?”

 

T writes only one WH-question prominently on the board so that all can see. She emphasizes the first WH-question word and the subject pronoun in her speech. [[Where did you go last weekend?]] She encourages Ss’ responses, as many who wish to contribute. As several Ss respond, they share various activities they did last weekend. T repeats their answers and writes some appropriate Ss’ responses on the board directly under the original question, such as: I went to the storeI worked overtime….. I went to the community centreI visited the doctor.…etc. To reinforce the appropriateness of the responses, T repeats Ss’ responses and reviews the basic structure of the WH-question.  T: “Very, very good, etc. Do you have any questions? Okay. Good.”

 

      Teacher’s WH-Question Formula to bear in mind:

WH-Questions in the Simple Past

 

WH-Question word +    DID     +     Subject    +        Verb            +          Complement?

                                   (Aux. past)      (person or thing)       (Simple/base form)

Where                          did                you                 go                         last weekend?

I went to the store.

I worked overtime.

I went to the community centre.

I visited the doctor.

The WH-questions which will apply in the lesson at different stages and which follow on from the warm-up activity include all of the following:

 

  1. Where did you go last weekend?

2.    How did you get there?

3.    What did you do?

4.    Who did you travel with?

5.    Why did you go?

6.    When did you return home (specific time or general period of day)?

 

Stage:

Introduction

 

Focus/Skill(s):

Listening, Speaking

 

T Role:

Director and Controller

Learning Styles:

Visual/Spatial, Verbal/Linguistic, Naturalistic

Timing:

10 minutes

 

T talk: “Okay, today… now, I will tell you a story about what the teacher’s family did last weekend. I will be using the simple past tense, okay. So, I want you to LISTEN very carefully to the story. LISTEN for the main verbs in the past tense, okay, and for what the family did. LISTEN for the MAIN VERBS in the simple past like WENT, WANTED, LOOKED AT, VISITED, SHOPPED, DROVE, BOUGHT, ENJOYED, etc… Do you have any questions before we begin our story? Is it all good? Okay. Good. Listen for the verbs and the information in the story.”

 

The T tells a story about, “The Road Trip to Wal-Mart” using the PPT version of the story in large print font as a visual aid. Story (10-11 simple sentences) read aloud: T talk: ”My family went on a road trip last Friday. I wanted to go shopping at WalMart. I also wanted to visit the mall. It was a beautiful day. We drove on the road in our car. We looked at the beautiful trees in the fields. We shopped for summer clothes in WalMart. My husband also bought some chicken noodle soup and a loaf of bread. We drove back home at 6:30 pm in the evening. I enjoyed my trip last weekend because I was happy. THE END.”

 

The T does not write any of the sentences in the story on the board but rather she reads them aloud while the students listen. T reads the short story two more times at a normal pace, but loudly and clearly, as students listen. Then she asks the Ss some comprehension questions about the story using the WH-question formula. The story remains visible on the PP with the main verbs in the past tense highlighted, etc.

 

T talk: 1. When did the family go on a road trip? Who remembers? Who can tell us the answer using a complete sentence? [The family went on a road trip on ______ ].”

 

T encourages Ss’ participation and she calls Ss’ names as they volunteer. As they answer each question orally, she points to the section of the story in the PP visual aid containing the answer. She encourages Ss to use complete grammatical sentences in their responses by modelling appropriate responses. The comprehension questions continue: T talk:

 

2. Why did the family go on the road trip? [The family went on a road trip because ______ ].

3. Where did the family go on the road trip? [The family went to______ ]. 

4. How did the family go on the road trip? [The family____ _ ____ ].

5. What did the family look at on the road trip? [The family looked at ______ ].

6. What did the family do at Wal-Mart? [The family ____ ____ ____ ].

7. When did the family return home? [The family returned home ______ ].

8. Why did the teacher enjoy the trip last weekend? [The teacher enjoyed the trip last weekend because _______ ].

 

Okay. You did quite well in answering those questions about the short story. I am pleased. Very good work. What did you think about the story? Did you notice a pattern in the questions? Do you have any questions of your own, now? We’re going to move on to the focus of our lesson today,okay. You will make notes in your notebook.”

 

Stage:

Presentation

Focus/Skill(s):

Grammar, Reading & Speaking

T Role: Director and Controller

 

Learning Styles:

Visual/Spatial, Verbal/Linguistic

Timing:

15 minutes

Recognizing, Forming & Responding to WH-Questions in the Simple Past

T now writes several WH-questions which were introduced during the previous stage in the lesson on the board widely spaced out from each other. The T introduces the focus of the lesson as information questions in English using the simple past tense construction. She encourages students to pay attention so that they can recognize the kind of information these questions ask about and the kind of information that is expected in answering them appropriately.

 

T uses the same PowerPoint Story presentation to point out the context of the road trip which has already taken place. T talk: “Let’s look at the WH-question pattern in these sentences on the board. I want you to learn this pattern and use it to ask information questions. When you’re trying to find out something about something, use this pattern in your questions. When you want to get a specific detail about something, okay, use these kinds of questions. Understand?

 

Let’s look at the first question and the pattern you need, okay. 1. When did the family go on a road trip? Let’s repeat this question aloud, please. Repeat after me. [When did the family go on a road trip?].” Ss repeat after T: [When did the family go on a road trip?] T talk: “Okay, so look at the structure of the question very closely. You see that the question begins with a WH-question word called WHEN.  When English speakers use this question word to ask a question, they want some information about the time of day when the action happened, okay. The TIME of day. So WHEN means time, okay. And it begins with a capital letter. What do you see following the WH-question word WHEN? Yes, very good. We have the AUXILIARY DID. And DID in English is needed to form the question in the past tense. It’s in the past tense already, okay. So we have WHEN + DID.. Now, what follows the AUXILIARY DID in the question pattern? What do you see? Yes, very good. We then have the SUBJECT of the sentence/question following the DID. Remember that the SUBJECT can be a person or a thing. Who or what is our SUBJECT here in this first sentence, please? THE FAMILY… Very good. So far, we have WHEN + DID + THE FAMILY……Now I want you to look closely at this first sentence/question again. What do you see following THE FAMILY which is our SUBJECT? We see the VERB GO. Please, please notice that the VERB GO is in its simple form. It does not have an ending or an –s. Stick to the simple form of the main verb, the base form, NO ENDINGS WHATSOEVER ON THE MAIN VERB when you want to create these kinds of simple information questions, okay. This sentence is a WH-question, okay. The verb stays in the simple form. Say that with me. ‘The main verb stays in the simple form.’ So far then, we have a pattern. We have: WHEN + DID + THE FAMILY + GO…Do you understand what’s happening with our WH-question pattern, so far? Let’s go on. The last part of the pattern is known as the COMPLEMENT. It completes the question. It can be a single word or a phrase. Please, please notice that a question in English ends with a QUESTION MARK at the end of the sentence. ONLY ONE QUESTION MARK IS NEEDED AT THE END OF THE SENTENCE, OKAY. So we have a question mark here at the end of the sentence instead of a period. Why? Because a question mark means you’re asking a question. So our entire pattern is: WHEN + DID + THE FAMILY + GO + ON THE ROAD? The question mark is written only once—at the end, but in speech you will raise your voice to show that you are asking a WH-question.

 

Let’s put the rule/formula on the board for everybody to see. And I want you to copy it down in your notebook/binder.” T allows sufficient time for students to copy the rule and the first example in their books.

 

WH-Question word +    DID     +     Subject    +        Verb            +          Complement?

                                   (Aux. past)      (person or thing)       (Simple/base form)

Where                          did          the family             go                         last weekend?

 

The T reiterates how the pattern works in English and how it relates to the WH-questions the class has been studying. T talk: “Do you have any questions? Then let’s look at another sentence with a different WH-question word. 2. Where did the family go on the road trip? This next sentence follows this same pattern we are talking about, today, okay. English has more than one WH-question word we can use to create these kinds of sentences, okay. So here we have WHERE + DID + THE FAMILY + GO + ON THE ROAD TRIP? What is the WH-question word WHERE referring to? Does anybody know? Well, it’s asking for information about the place or location, okay. Where did you buy groceries last month? You bought groceries at the supermarket. The supermarket is a kind of place or location, okay, answering the question beginning with WHERE. Does everybody follow how this question pattern works? Good.” 

 

*N.B.: T will avoid asking WH-questions about the subjects of any sentence or using sentences containing the verb BE, as these constructions present exceptions to the general rule of asking and responding to WH-questions in English.

 

Stage:

Controlled (or Focused) Practice

Skill(s):

Grammar, Speaking, Writing

T Role:

Director to Facilitator

Learning Styles:

Visual/Spatial, Verbal/Linguistic

Timing:

15 minutes

 

T show Ss a chart with the basic WH-question words explained with examples via a Power Point presentation and chart paper.

 

Then the T reviews once again how the question pattern works in English using ALL of the sentences on the board. She also explains how the pattern relates to the WH-questions the class has been studying earlier in the warm-up activity and in the class discussions today, so far. She gets students to repeat the questions aloud and identify the WH-question word in each sentence as well as the kind of information/detail each question is asking about. She takes time to explain each question word in its context.

Based on the students’ questions and responses, T may also rehearse the simple past and the Verb conjugation, I went, you went, he/she/it went….. I travelled, you travelled, he/she/it travelled… I visited, you visited, he/she/it visited… etc… Using the sentences on the board as examples, the T may briefly explain also how the pronoun changes in the responses to the WH-questions She would point out that the change is based on who is talking and who you’re talking to. She would encourage the students to pay attention to who is talking and asking the questions AND who must respond and answer the questions asked, etc.

 

Using the basic formula for asking simple WH-questions, T asks Ss where each one went last weekend until ALL have responded appropriately. She moves around the classroom as well.

 

T talk: Samir, where did you go last weekend? [Say,..I went… ] Kolokito, where did you go last weekend? [Say,.. I went… ] Etc…

 

WH-Question word +  DID    +   Subject  +                  Verb             +                     Complement?

                             (Aux. past)   (person or thing)    (Simple/base form)

Where                 did                    you                             go                                    last weekend?

Possible Ss’ responses:

  • I went to the Walmart’s Supercentre in Waterdown.
  • I visited the hospital to see my father.
  • I went to the Mall.
  • My family drove out of town to see the festival.

REVIEW: FORMATION OF THE SIMPLE PAST

Subject      +      Verb (+-ed/simple past form) +    (Direct object)  + Complement.

The family                          went                                                         on a road trip.

T revisits the simple past form/structure once again to reinforce and connect it to answering WH-questions. She also connects the past forms to meaning and use by incorporating examples from the warm-up or real life. She connects the components of the answers to specific components in the WH-questions themselves. E.g., Where= place/location; DID=simple past. GO=action verb requiring the –ed ending or other verbs requiring irregular forms, etc. If necessary, T will explain the correlating points by writing a WH-question and an appropriate answer directly below the matching grammatical components so that Ss could follow, etc. E.g.

 

Where         did            the   family               go                                               last         weekend?

                                    The family               went  (WHERE?) on a road trip  last          weekend.

 

T explains how the DID auxiliary carries the tense information of past event or past action in the WH-question. Therefore, a correct response would use the MAIN VERB from the question pattern in its simple past form. She reminds the students that regular verbs end in an –ed in English, but the forms of irregular verbs in the simple past must be learned (e.g., went, drove, saw, etc.).

The focused practice activity supports the use of the grammar point and assesses the students’ comprehension.

Based on the time allotment, the T asks the Ss the first two questions in the list. These were introduced earlier but not all were practiced during earlier stages of the lesson. To gauge the students’ understanding, she calls upon each student in turn until the two questions have been answered satisfactorily with appropriate responses. Then she encourages students to write down each of the sentences as given on the board along with each of their answers. She circulates around the room to check each students’ practice exercise.

  1. Where did you go last weekend?

 

2.    How did you get there?

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.    What did you do?

 

4.    Who did you travel with?

 

5.    Why did you go?

 

6.    When did you return home (specific time or general period of day)?

 

Stage:

Less Controlled (or Focused) Practice

Skill(s):

Speaking, Listening, Reading & Writing

T Role:

Director to Facilitator

Learning Styles:

Interpersonal, Verbal/Linguistic

Timing:

10-15 minutes

 

T talk:”You have been practicing really well, today. Does anyone have a question? So now, I want you to work in groups. I want you to talk with each other. Look at the questions on the board which are #’s1-6. I want you to take turns asking each other each of the questions and allowing each class member to answer each question before moving on to the next question. So for example, you will ask your partner question #1. ‘Where did you go last weekend?’ Then your partner will follow the pattern of the simple past and answer, ‘I went to the _______.’ Then the responding partner will ask the first partner the same question and allow him or her to answer it BEFORE moving on to the next question, okay. Does everybody understand what to do? Do you have any questions? Okay then. Work with your partner asking each question and answering each question, etc.

 

Working in small groups, Ss ask each other the basic questions on the board. Each takes turn asking the questions in an ABAB fashion. A asks B where he or she went last weekend. Then B responds to A’s prompt before he/she asks A the same question and allows him/her to respond. They continue this oral exercise until they’ve exhausted all of the basic questions on the board, taking turns for each to respond appropriately. Ss can use their picture dictionaries to locate unfamiliar vocabulary. T constantly circles the pairs and around the room to check on the Ss’ understanding of the activity and the appropriateness of their responses to the WH-questions, etc.

 

Stage:

Free Practice

Skill(s):

Listening & Writing

T Role:

Facilitator and Assessor

Learning Styles:

Intrapersonal, Verbal/Linguistic

Timing:

10-15 minutes

 

T talk: Okay then. Great effort. Let’s review our travel vocabulary and location words. We can also go over verbs of travel, prepositional phrases, buildings, and events. The class reviews the necessary vocabulary for the written practice.

Next, T provides students with a written worksheet with all of the WH-questions for today, that is, the ones that were on the board during the lesson. Each question has a blank line underneath for students to write an appropriate response.

T talk:“Now I want you to work individually, that is, by yourself to record your answers which you have just discussed. You are going to use the worksheet to read the information questions and write your responses to each one. But remember now, on this worksheet, when you see the subject pronoun you in the WH-questions, it is referring to you, of course. But in your answer, you must change it to I to refer to yourself, okay. Let’s do the first two questions together.”

  1. Where did you go last weekend?

I went to the supermarket.

 

2.    How did you get there?

I rode in a bus.

 

The T reads over the worksheet and the class completes the first two items with appropriate responses together. The T allows the students to read the remaining questions aloud to themselves, if they wish.

 

Students study all of the questions on the worksheet, one by one, in sequence, etc. They read the questions aloud to themselves, then they write their responses to each one, following the pattern of the simple past. Using the simple past format reviewed earlier, they write appropriate responses. They are free to refer to their picture dictionaries or ask the T for further explanation. Ss also continue working on the questions by replacing the you with I until the time has passed.

 

T constantly circles the room to assess Ss’ understanding of the activity and the appropriateness of their responses in writing on the worksheet, etc. She gently corrects as she deems necessary.

 

Stage:

Evaluation

Skill(s):

Writing & Reading

 

T Role:

Facilitator and Assessor

Learning Styles:

Intrapersonal, Verbal/Linguistic

Timing:

10 minutes

T re-introduces the same road trip story about the family driving to another town to shop at Wal-Mart with slight changes in pronoun usage. This time also the short story is divided into 10 incomplete numbered “sentences” with specific components omitted. The omitted sections relate to the kinds of basic information questions we can ask. As individuals, Ss must decode the context of the whole sentence from the story and then construct an appropriate WH-question to match the focus of each “sentence”. The specific wh-question and the main verb are provided in each case, but there’s no capital letter and no auxiliary form. The Ss have to supply them. The T models the exercise first by going over the first two sentences. The class reviews with the T what is expected. T encourages the Ss to read everything to help them compose correct WH-questions based on the specific context and what they remember from the story.

1.    where / family / go last weekend? Possible answer should be a correctly formed WH-question= Where did my family go last weekend?

2.    what / teacher / want to do at WalMart?  What did the teacher want to do at Wal-Mart?

Once again, during this phase of the lesson, Ss have the freedom to consult their picture dictionary and ask any questions. It’s expected that Ss will complete at least two well-formed WH-questions on their own.

 

Stage:

Application

Skill(s):

Speaking & Listening

T Role:

Facilitator and Assessor

Learning Styles:

 

Timing:

5 minutes

 

Post-Activity:

Using picture cards or paper picture cut-outs, T shows the class pictures of people who went somewhere last week. And she asks them WH-questions about the pictures. Ss are encouraged to respond appropriately using the scenarios in each picture to decode the information that is required to ask sensible WH-questions.

 

T: PICTURE #1 shown: Where did he go last week? (to the lake)

T: PICTURE #2 shown: Where did she go last week? (shopping)

T: PICTURE #3 shown: Where did the children go last week? (to school)

T: PICTURE #4 shown: Where did the family go last week? (on vacation)

T: PICTURE #5 shown: What did he do last month? (played baseball)

T: PICTURE #6 shown: Why did the woman go to the hospital? (broken wrist)

T: PICTURE #7 shown: When did the worker fall ill? (at lunchtime)

 

Then if time permits, T reverses the order of the pictures and shows them again. This time she mentions only the location, event, activity or condition of the subject. She then elicits WH-questions from the Ss.

 

Stage:

Closure

Skill(s):

Listening/ Speaking

T Role:

Manager

Learning Styles:

 

Timing:

5 minutes

 

 

T talk: What have you learned today? Ss share what they have learned. T quickly sums up the use, meaning and form of simple WH-questions and appropriate responses in context. T points to the chart and formula and reiterates what was covered today. She entertains Ss’ questions and assigns homework.

 

Homework:

Write a simple 2-sentence story telling me what you did last weekend (last weekend’s activity). Please ask yourself one WH-question to help you remember and then describe what you did. You can respond to 2 WH-questions that were written on the board today.

Follow-up:

There are many interesting ways to follow up this lesson. I will bear in mind what these beginners have already mastered and are working on so that I might ensure the follow-up activities are suitable and interesting. Nevertheless, I can choose any of the following:

 

1)    Teaching module:

The grammar point could be organized into a full lesson scheme or teaching module about transportation/travel—tourists’ and passengers’ problems and issues by incorporating movie clips, picture stories and slide shows. It could also integrate accidents and how to deal with them through asking appropriate questions in context. Students have to use WH-questions to figure out past events and specific information (persons, reasons, locations, time sequences, manner,etc.) (listening & speaking)

2)    Role playing as roving investigators:

The simple past with WH-questions can be expanded to include group work, e.g., students can act as reporters or detectives to obtain specific information about an incident, event or accident, in a picture story or movie, etc. (listening & speaking)

3)    Studying authentic travel/transportation data (upper level beginners, of course):

Working with real maps, itineraries and schedules, students get to figure out passengers & travelers’ routes, activities and trips by constructing appropriate WH-questions (Integrated skills)

4)    Sharing real stories:

Sharing and writing their stories about unexpected events which have happened while travelling. Classmates ask about basic (non-personal) details—E.g., Where did you go? When did the accident happen? Why did your uncle call the police? Where did the two cars collide? How did the trip end? (Integrated skills)

5)    Matching sentence exercises:

Using strips of paper with declarative phrases/ short sentences on the one hand, students have to find their partners with the correct matching interrogative phrases/sentences on the other hand. The details must correlate with the type of WH-question demonstrated/needed in the context.

6)    Converting sentence exercises:

Sentence conversion activity: By reading simple interrogative sentences with WH-questions and/or key information highlighted or underlined, students have to respond to and convert the structure into an appropriate declarative sentence. The details must correlate with the type of WH-question demonstrated.

 


List of References

Beare, Kenneth. English as 2nd Language Guide. 2012. Web 30 Sept. 2012.

<http://esl.about.com/od/question-forms/a/How-To-Ask-Questions.htm >.

Coursosdeiglesias.com. “Information Questions & The Simple Past.” Oct. 5, 209. Web 30 Sept.

2012. < http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=l&v=tQuw76chagM&features=endscreen >.

Luman, Ruth, Gabriele Steiner, and B.J. Wells. Focus on Grammar 2, Part VI, Unit 22.

Pearson Education, Inc., 2006. Power Point Presentation: “The Simple Past: Yes/No

and Wh-Questions: An Accident.”

  Ur, Penny. Grammar Practice Activities: A Practical Guide for Teachers. Cambridge, UK:

CUP, 2009. Print.

Other Electronic sources reviewed:

http://www.slideshare.net/vazquezcalleja/past-simple-ppt-mercedes   

http://video.about.com/esl/ESL--Question-Words-in-English.htm

http://www.perfect-english-grammar.com

http://www.esl-library.com/

http://www.learningchocolate.com

 

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